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In April , Instagram released a Windows 10 Mobile app, after years of demand from Microsoft and the public to release an app for the platform. On April 30, , the Windows 10 Mobile app was discontinued, though the mobile website remains available as a progressive web application PWA with limited functionality.
The app remains available on Windows 10 computers and tablets, also updated to a PWA in IGTV launched on June 20, as a standalone video application.
On September 24, , Krieger and Systrom announced in a statement they would be stepping down from Instagram. During Facebook F8 , it was announced that Instagram would, beginning in Canada, pilot the removal of publicly-displayed " like " counts for content posted by other users.
Mosseri stated that this was intended to have users "worry a little bit less about how many likes they're getting on Instagram and spend a bit more time connecting with the people that they care about.
In August , Instagram also began to pilot the removal of the "Following" tab from the app, which had allowed users to view a feed of the likes and comments made by users they follow.
The change was made official in October, with head of product Vishal Shah stating that the feature was underused and that some users were "surprised" when they realized their activity was being surfaced in this manner.
Already in October , there were articles describing that Instagram introduced a limit on the number of posts visible to people not logged-in in page scrolling mode until then public profiles had been available to everyone.
In November , it was reported that Instagram had begun to pilot a new video feature known as "Reels". It is similar in functionality to the Chinese video-sharing service TikTok , with a focus on allowing users to record short videos set to pre-existing sound clips from other posts.
In March , Instagram launched a new feature called "Co-Watching". The new feature allows users to share posts with each other over video calls.
According to Instagram, they pushed forward the launch of Co-Watching in order to meet the demand for virtually connecting with friends and family as more people are told to stay at home and "social distance" as a result of the COVID pandemic.
A publication which appeared in April indicating that Instagram additionally prevented from opening any post posted in the public profile. This restriction applies to a computer or tablet, but not to a mobile phone.
Users can upload photographs and short videos, follow other users' feeds,  and geotag images with the name of a location.
The feature was removed in September , citing low usage. Since December , posts can be "saved" into a private area of the app.
The move was seen as a way to prevent users from deleting photos that don't garner a desired number of "likes" or are deemed boring, but also as a way to limit the "emergent behavior" of deleting photos, which deprives the service of content.
Since February , up to ten pictures or videos can be included in a single post, with the content appearing as a swipeable carousel. In April , Instagram launched its version of a portrait mode called "focus mode," which gently blurs the background of a photo or video while keeping the subject in focus when selected.
They are either generated automatically using object recognition using existing Facebook technology or manually specified by the uploader.
In January , Instagram introduced hashtags to help users discover both photos and each other. Users on Instagram have created "trends" through hashtags.
The trends deemed the most popular on the platform often highlight a specific day of the week to post the material on. Examples of popular trends include SelfieSunday, in which users post a photo of their faces on Sundays; MotivationMonday, in which users post motivational photos on Mondays; TransformationTuesday, in which users post photos highlighting differences from the past to the present; WomanCrushWednesday, in which users post photos of women they have a romantic interest in or view favorably, as well as its ManCrushMonday counterpart centered on men; and ThrowbackThursday, in which users post a photo from their past, highlighting a particular moment.
In December , Instagram began to allow users to follow hashtags, which display relevant highlights of the topic in their feeds.
In June , Instagram introduced "Explore", a tab inside the app that displays popular photos, photos taken at nearby locations, and search.
Instagram offers a number of photographic filters that users can apply to their images:. In February , Instagram added a "Lux" filter, an effect that "lightens shadows, darkens highlights and increases contrast".
Initially a purely photo-sharing service, Instagram incorporated second video sharing in June Basic functionality is also available within the Instagram app and website.
IGTV allows uploads of up to 10 minutes in length with a file size of up to MB, with verified and popular users allowed to upload videos of up to 60 minutes in length with a file size of up to 5.
In December , Instagram announced Instagram Direct, a feature that lets users interact through private messaging. Users who follow each other can send private messages with photos and videos, in contrast to the public-only requirement that was previously in place.
When users receive a private message from someone they don't follow, the message is marked as pending and the user must accept to see it.
Users can send a photo to a maximum of 15 people. Additionally, users can now reply to private messages with text, emoji or by clicking on a heart icon.
A camera inside Direct lets users take a photo and send it to the recipient without leaving the conversation.
In August , Instagram launched Instagram Stories, a feature that allows users to take photos, add effects and layers, and add them to their Instagram story.
Images uploaded to a user's story expire after 24 hours. The media noted the feature's similarities to Snapchat. You can trace the roots of every feature anyone has in their app, somewhere in the history of technology".
Although Systrom acknowledged the criticism as "fair", Recode wrote that "he likened the two social apps' common features to the auto industry: Multiple car companies can coexist, with enough differences among them that they serve different consumer audiences".
Systrom further stated that "When we adopted [Stories], we decided that one of the really annoying things about the format is that it just kept going and you couldn't pause it to look at something, you couldn't rewind.
We did all that, we implemented that. They adopted filters because Instagram had filters and a lot of others were trying to adopt filters as well.
In November, Instagram added live video functionality to Instagram Stories, allowing users to broadcast themselves live, with the video disappearing immediately after ending.
In January , Instagram launched skippable ads, where five-second photo and second video ads appear in-between different stories.
In April , Instagram Stories incorporated augmented reality stickers, a "clone" of Snapchat's functionality.
In May , Instagram expanded the augmented reality sticker feature to support face filters, letting users add specific visual features onto their faces.
Later in May, TechCrunch reported about tests of a Location Stories feature in Instagram Stories, where public Stories content at a certain location are compiled and displayed on a business, landmark or place's Instagram page.
In June , Instagram revised its live-video functionality to allow users to add their live broadcast to their story for availability in the next 24 hours, or discard the broadcast immediately.
Stories were made available for viewing on Instagram's mobile and desktop websites in late August On December 5, , Instagram introduced "Story Highlights",  also known as "Permanent Stories", which are similar to Instagram Stories, but don't expire.
They appear as circles below the profile picture and biography and are accessible from the desktop website as well.
Emily White joined Instagram as Director of Business Operations in April   She stated in an interview with The Wall Street Journal in September that the company should be ready to begin selling advertising by September as a way to generate business from a popular entity that had not yet created profit for its parent company.
In October , Instagram announced that video and image ads would soon appear in feeds for users in the United States,   with the first image advertisements displaying on November 1, In March , Instagram announced it would implement "carousel ads," allowing advertisers to display multiple images with options for linking to additional content.
In May , Instagram launched new tools for business accounts, including business profiles, analytics and the ability to promote posts as ads.
To access the tools, businesses had to link a corresponding Facebook page. In November , Instagram added the ability for business accounts to add product links directing users to a purchase page or to save them to a "shopping list.
In March , via a blog post, Instagram announced that they are making major moderation changes in order to decrease the flow of disinformation, hoaxes and fake news regarding COVID on its platform, "We'll remove COVID accounts from account recommendations, and we are working to remove some COVID related content from Explore unless posted by a credible health organization.
We will also start to downrank content in feed and Stories that has been rated false by third-party fact-checkers.
Instagram has developed and released three stand-alone apps with specialized functionality. In July , it released Bolt , a messaging app where users click on a friend's profile photo to quickly send an image, with the content disappearing after being seen.
The popularity of Instagram has led to a variety of third-party services designed to integrate with it, including services for creating content to post on the service and generating content from Instagram photos including physical print-outs , analytics, and alternative clients for platforms with insufficient or no official support from Instagram such as in the past, iPads.
In November , Instagram announced that effective June 1, , it would end "feed" API access to its platform in order to "maintain control for the community and provide a clear roadmap for developers" and "set up a more sustainable environment built around authentic experiences on the platform", including those oriented towards content creation, publishers, and advertisers.
It was reported that these changes were primarily intended to discourage third-party clients replicating the entire Instagram experience due to increasing monetization of the service , and security reasons such as preventing abuse by automated click farms , and the hijacking of accounts.
For unlimited browsing of public Instagram profiles without having to create an account, as well as for anonymous browsing of someone else's Stories, has to use the Instagram profiles viewer.
For this reason, they are very valuable for market research. Following the release in October, Instagram had one million registered users in December From June to June , Instagram approximately doubled their number of users.
Ongoing research continues to explore how media content on the platform affects user engagement. Past research has found that media which show peoples' faces receive more 'likes' and comments and that using filters that increase warmth, exposure, and contrast also boosts engagement.
The motives for using Instagram among young people are mainly to look at posts, particularly for the sake of social interactions and recreation.
In contrast, the level of agreement expressed in creating Instagram posts was lower, which demonstrates that Instagram's emphasis on visual communication is widely accepted by young people in social communication.
In May , a survey conducted by the United Kingdom's Royal Society for Public Health , featuring 1, people aged 14—24, asking them to rate social media platforms depending on anxiety, depression, loneliness, bullying and body image, concluded that Instagram was the "worst for young mental health".
Some have suggested it may contribute to digital dependence , whist this same survey noticed its positive effects, including self-expression, self-identity, and community building.
In response to the survey, Instagram stated that "Keeping Instagram a safe and supportive place for young people was a top priority".
If some of the accounts violate Instagram's community guidelines, it will take action, which could include banning them.
In , researchers from Harvard University and University of Vermont demonstrated a machine learning tool that successfully outperformed general practitioners' diagnostic success rate for depression.
The tool used color analysis, metadata components, and face detection of users' feeds. In response to abusive and negative comments on users' photos, Instagram has made efforts to give users more control over their posts and accompanying comments field.
In July , it announced that users would be able to turn off comments for their posts, as well as control the language used in comments by inputting words they consider offensive, which will ban applicable comments from showing up.
In September , the company announced that public users would be able to limit who can comment on their content, such as only their followers or people they follow.
At the same time, it updated its automated comment filter to support additional languages. In June , Instagram announced that it would automatically attempt to filter offensive, harassing, and "spammy" comments by default.
The system is built using a Facebook-developed deep learning algorithm known as DeepText first implemented on the social network to detect spam comments , which utilizes natural-language processing techniques, and can also filter by user-specified keywords.
In July , the service announced that it would introduce a system to proactively detect problematic comments and encourage the user to reconsider their comment, as well as allowing users the ability to "restrict" others' abilities to communicate with them, citing that younger users felt the existing block system was too much of an escalation.
According to a Facebook spokesperson, on 11 January , Instagram and its parent company Facebook are picking up posts "that voice support for slain Iranian commander Qassem Soleimani to comply with US sanctions".
Instagram has been the subject of criticism due to users publishing images of drugs they are selling on the platform. In , the BBC discovered that users, mostly located in the United States, were posting images of drugs they were selling, attaching specific hashtags, and then completing transactions via instant messaging applications such as WhatsApp.
Corresponding hashtags have been blocked as part of the company's response and a spokesperson engaged with the BBC explained:  . Instagram has a clear set of rules about what is and isn't allowed on the site.
We encourage people who come across illegal or inappropriate content to report it to us using the built-in reporting tools next to every photo, video or comment, so we can take action.
People can't buy things on Instagram, we are simply a place where people share photos and videos. However, new incidents of illegal drug trade have occurred in the aftermath of the revelation, with Facebook, Instagram's parent company, asking users who come across such content to report the material, at which time a "dedicated team" reviews the information.
In , Facebook announced that influencers are no longer able to post any vape , tobacco products, and weapons promotions on Facebook and Instagram.
In October , Instagram deleted the account of Canadian photographer Petra Collins after she posted a photo of herself in which a very small area of pubic hair was visible above the top of her bikini bottom.
Collins claimed that the account deletion was unfounded because it did not break any of Instagram's terms and conditions.
You can indeed find more sexually suggestive photos on the site than Collins', where women show the side of "femininity" the world is "used to" seeing and accepting.
Similar incidents occurred in January , when Instagram deleted Australian fashion agency Sticks and Stones Agency's account because of a photograph including pubic hair sticking out of bikini bottoms,  and March , when artist and poet Rupi Kaur 's photos of menstrual blood on clothing were removed, prompting a rallying post on her Facebook and Tumblr accounts with the text "We will not be censored", gaining over 11, shares.
The incidents have led to a FreetheNipple campaign, aimed at challenging Instagram's removal of photos displaying women's nipples.
However, this statement has also been called into question due to other apps with more explicit content allowed on the store, the lack of consequences for men exposing their bodies on Instagram, and for inconsistent treatment of what constitutes inappropriate exposure of the female body.
Instagram has been blocked by China following the Hong Kong protests because a lot of videos and photos are posted.
Hong Kong and Macau were not affected as they are special administrative regions of China. Turkey is also known for its strict Internet censorship and periodically blocks social media including Instagram.
A few days after a fire incident that happened in the Koryo Hotel in North Korea on June 11, , authorities began to block Instagram to prevent photos of the incident from being spread out.
In August , reports surfaced that a bug in Instagram's developer tools had allowed "one or more individuals" to gain access to the contact information, specifically email addresses and phone numbers, of several high-profile verified accounts, including its most followed user, Selena Gomez.
The company said in a statement that it had "fixed the bug swiftly" and was running an investigation. The company admitted that "we cannot determine which specific accounts may have been impacted", but believed that "it was a low percentage of Instagram accounts", though TechCrunch stated in its report that six million accounts were affected by the hack, and that "Instagram services more than million accounts; six million is not a small number".
In , Apple pulled an app that let users stalk people on Instagram by scraping accounts and collecting data. On December 17, , Instagram announced a change to its Terms of Service policy, adding the following sentence: .
There was no option for users to opt out of the changed Terms of Service without deleting their accounts before the new policy went into effect on January 16, Citing misinterpretations about its intention to "communicate that we'd like to experiment with innovative advertising that feels appropriate on Instagram", Systrom also stated that it was "our mistake that this language is confusing" and that "it is not our intention to sell your photos".
Furthermore, he wrote that they would work on "updated language in the terms to make sure this is clear".
The policy change and its backlash caused competing photo services to use the opportunity to "try to lure users away" by promoting their privacy-friendly services,  and some services experienced substantial gains in momentum and user growth following the news.
We could have had the exact same freakout last week, or a year ago, or the day Instagram launched". The policy update also introduced an arbitration clause, which remained even after the language pertaining to advertising and user content had been modified.
In April , Instagram began rolling out a change to the order of photos visible in a user's timeline, shifting from a strictly chronological order to one determined by an algorithm.
Since , Instagram has employed the ability to reduce the prominence of accounts " shadowbanning " it believes may be generating non-genuine engagement and spam including excessive use of unneeded hashtags , preventing posts from appearing in search results and in the app's Explore section.
In a now-deleted Facebook post, Instagram wrote that "When developing content, we recommend focusing on your business objective or goal rather than hashtags".
Instagram caused the userbase to fall into outrage with the December update. Columbia Law School professor Tim Wu has given public talks explaining that Facebook's purchase of Instagram was a felony.
Wu stated that this document was an email directly from Mark Zuckerberg , whereas the Post article had stated that their source had declined to say whether the high-ranking executive was the CEO.
The article reported that the FTC "has formed a task force to review "anticompetitive conduct" in the tech world amid concerns that tech companies are growing too powerful.
The task force will look at "the full panoply of remedies" if it finds "competitive harm," FTC competition bureau director Bruce Hoffman told reporters.
In , Olivia Solon, a reporter for The Guardian , posted a screenshot to her Instagram profile of an email she had received containing threats of rape and murder towards her.
The photo post had received three likes and countless comments, and in September , the company's algorithms turned the photo into an advertisement visible to Solon's sister.
An Instagram spokesperson apologized and told The Guardian that "We are sorry this happened — it's not the experience we want someone to have. This notification post was surfaced as part of an effort to encourage engagement on Instagram.
Posts are generally received by a small percentage of a person's Facebook friends". As noted by the technology media, the incident occurred at the same time parent company Facebook was under scrutiny for its algorithms and advertising campaigns being used for offensive and negative purposes.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online photo-sharing and social networking service. For the song, see Instagram song.
This article contains weasel words : vague phrasing that often accompanies biased or unverifiable information. Such statements should be clarified or removed.
January Kevin Systrom Mike Krieger. List of languages. Normal: No filter applied. Amaro: Adds light to an image, with the focus on the center.
Earlybird: Gives photographs an older look with a sepia tint and warm temperature. Hefe: High contrast and saturation, with a similar effect to Lo-Fi but not quite as dramatic.
Hudson: Creates an "icy" illusion with heightened shadows, a cool tint and a dodged center. Kelvin: Increases saturation and temperature to give it a radiant "glow".
Mayfair: Applies a warm pink tone, subtle vignetting to brighten the photograph center and a thin black border. Rise: Adds a "glow" to the image, with softer lighting of the subject.
Sierra: Gives a faded, softer look. Sutro: Burns photo edges, increases highlights and shadows dramatically with a focus on purple and brown colors.
Toaster: Ages the image by "burning" the center and adds a dramatic vignette. Valencia: Fades the image by increasing exposure and warming the colors, to give it an antique feel.
Walden: Increases exposure and adds a yellow tint. Willow: A monochromatic filter with subtle purple tones and a translucent white border. Slumber: Desaturates the image as well as adds haze for a retro, dreamy look — with an emphasis on blacks and blues.
Cream: Adds a creamy look that both warms and cools the image. Ludwig: A slight hint of desaturation that also enhances light. Perpetua: Adding a pastel look, this filter is ideal for portraits.
Originally released as a video-only filter. Gingham: Washes photos out. Gives a yellowish tone when used on dark photos or a brighter, dreamy look when used on light photos.
Moon: Black-and-white version of Gingham, with slightly more intense shadows. Stinson: Subtle filter that brightens an image, washing out the colors slightly.
Crema: A vintage filter that desaturates images. Smooths and washes out skin tones. Reyes: Gives photos a dusty, vintage look.
Juno: Tints cool tones green, makes warm tones pop and whites glow — for vibrant photos of people. Main article: IGTV.
See also: List of most-followed Instagram accounts. See also: Internet censorship in China. See also: Internet in North Korea. Internet portal Companies portal.
Retrieved April 7, App Store. Amazon Appstore for Android. Retrieved January 2, Retrieved December 16, Retrieved October 29, Retrieved October 7, Retrieved July 17, Futures of Data Analysis in Qualitative Research.
Breivik was permitted to move himself out from behind the glass wall of the visit room—to give his mother a farewell hug".
Janne Kristiansen , then Chief of the Norwegian Police Security Service PST , said Breivik "deliberately desisted from violent exhortations on the net [and] has more or less been a moderate, and has neither been part of any extremist network.
Six hours before the attacks, Breivik posted a picture of himself as a Knight Templar officer in a uniform festooned with a gold aiguillette and multiple medals he had not been awarded.
Breivik prepared a document titled A European Declaration of Independence. It also reports that Breivik spent thousands of hours gathering email addresses from Facebook for distribution of the document, and that he rented a farm as a cover for a fake farming company buying fertilizer 3 tons for producing explosives and 3 tons of a harmless kind to avoid suspicion and as a lab.
It describes burying a crate with the armour in the woods in July , collecting it on 4 July , and abandoning his plan to replace it with survival gear because he did not have a second pistol.
It also expresses support for far-right groups such as the English Defence League  and paramilitaries such as the Scorpions. India, and in particular Hindu nationalism , figures repeatedly in the manifesto where he expresses praise and admiration for Hindu nationalist groups.
He also expressed his admiration of the Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin , finding him "a fair and resolute leader worthy of respect", though he was "unsure at this point whether he has the potential to be our best friend or our worst enemy.
Benjamin R. Teitelbaum , former professor of Nordic Studies current professor of musicology at University of Colorado , argues that several parts of the manifesto suggest that Breivik was concerned about race, not only about Western culture or Christianity, labelling him as a white nationalist.
Thomas Hegghammer of the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment has described the ideologies of Breivik as "not fitting the established categories of right-wing ideology, like white supremacism , ultranationalism or Christian fundamentalism ", but more akin to macro-nationalism and a "new doctrine of civilisational war ".
In one section of the manifesto titled "Battlefield Wikipedia", Breivik explains the importance of using Wikipedia as a venue for disseminating views and information to the general public,  although the Norwegian professor Arnulf Hagen claims that this was a document that he had copied from another author and that Breivik was unlikely to be a contributor to Wikipedia.
Breivik's manifesto A European Declaration of Independence circulated in online fascist forums where strategies were set and tactics debated.
Breivik had been active on several anti-Islamic and nationalist blogs, including document. After studying several militant groups, including the IRA , ETA and others, Breivik suggests far-right militants should adopt al-Qaeda 's methods, learn from their success, and avoid their mistakes.
In a letter sent by Breivik to international media in January , Breivik states that he exploited "counterjihadist" rhetoric in order to protect "ethno-nationalists" and start a media hunt against "anti-nationalist counterjihadist"-supporters, in a strategy he calls "double psychology".
Breivik further states that he strives for a "pure Nordic ideal", advocating the establishment of a similar party in Norway to the now-defunct neo-Nazi Party of the Swedes , and identifying himself as a part of "Western Europe's fascist movement".
Moreover, he states that his "support" for Israel is limited for it to function as a place to deport "disloyal Jews ". Following his apprehension, Breivik was characterised by analysts as being a right-wing extremist with anti-Muslim views and a deep-seated hatred of Islam ,  who considered himself a knight dedicated to stemming the tide of Muslim immigration into Europe.
He was at first described by many in the media as a Christian fundamentalist , Christian terrorist , and nationalist. His religious faith is Odinism.
Breivik was an active member of an Oslo shooting club between and , and since According to the club, which banned him for life after the attacks, Breivik had taken part in 13 organized training sessions and one competition since June At the time of the attacks, Breivik was a member of the Lodge of St.
Olaf at the Three Columns in Oslo  and had displayed photographs of himself in partial Masonic regalia on his Facebook profile.
Skaar, issued an edict immediately excluding him from the fraternity based upon the acts he carried out and the values that appear to have motivated them.
Breivik became a member of the Progress Party FrP in He paid his membership dues for the last time in , and was removed from the membership lists in During his time in the Progress Party, he held two positions in the Progress Party's youth organisation FpU: he was the chair of the local Vest Oslo branch from January to October , and a member of the board of the same branch from October till November After the attack, the Progress Party immediately distanced itself from Breivik's actions and ideas.
In an online discussion on the Norwegian website Document. Breivik saw this as the only way to stop left-wing radical groups like Blitz and SOS Rasisme from "harassing" Norwegian cultural conservatives.
Breivik indeed became a member of this organization under the pseudonym " Sigurd Jorsalfar ". According to Breivik, the order was established as an "anti- Jihad crusader-organisation" that "fights" against "Islamic suppression" in London in April by nine men: two Englishmen, a Frenchman, a German, a Dutchman, a Greek, a Russian, a Norwegian apparently Breivik , and a Serb supposedly the initiator, not present, but represented by Breivik.
The compendium gives a " estimate" that there are between 15 and 80 "Justiciar Knights" in Western Europe, and an unknown number of civilian members, and Breivik expects the order to take political and military control of Western Europe.
Breivik gives his own code name in the organisation as Sigurd and that of his assigned "mentor" as Richard, after the twelfth-century crusaders and kings Sigurd Jorsalfar of Norway and Richard the Lionheart of England.
After an intense investigation assisted internationally by several security agencies , the Norwegian police have not found any evidence that a PCCTS network existed, or that the alleged London meeting ever took place.
The police now view Breivik's claim as a figment of imagination in light of his schizophrenia diagnosis, and are increasingly confident that he had no accessories.
The perpetrator still insists he belongs to an order and that his one-man cell was "activated" by another clandestine cell. On 14 August , several Norwegian politicians and media outlets received an email from someone claiming to be Breivik's "deputy", demanding that Breivik be released, and making more threats against Norwegian society.
On 17 August , journalist Marit Christensen informed the Norwegian press that for the last year of Wenche Behring Breivik's life, she had been her confidant, and that a book based on Christensen's interviews with her would be published as a book in late under the title The Mother.
Norwegian author Unni Turrettini 's bestselling book The Mystery of the Lone Wolf Killer: Anders Behring Breivik and the Threat of Terror in Plain Sight examines the mind of Breivik and the phenomenon of the lone wolf killer and how they manifest themselves, delving into criminal psychology.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Anders Behring Breivik. Main article: Norway attacks. Main article: Trial of Anders Behring Breivik.
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He was also shoplifting. But I was always willing to see him, and he knew that. It was Anders who cut it off. His decision, not mine.
NRK special. Han ble fritatt fra verneplikt, og dermed har han ikke spesialutdanning eller utenlandsoppdrag for Forsvaret. He was exempt from conscription and therefore does not have military training or service abroad.
Retrieved 2 August Kilder i Forsvarets sikkerhetsavdeling Dagbladet har snakket med, forteller at Breivik allerede ved sesjon ble luket ut av rullene som ikke tjenesteskikket.
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