Desert- Beispielsätze für "desert"

Als Wüste werden die vegetationslosen oder vegetationsarmen Gebiete der Erde bezeichnet. Ursache für Wüsten sind entweder fehlende Wärme der subpolaren und subnivalen Regionen, Überweidung oder Wassermangel. Wüsten zählen zur Anökumene. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'desert' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Desert - Wir haben raffinierte Desert Rezepte für dich gefunden! Finde was du suchst - schmackhaft & einfach. Jetzt ausprobieren mit ♥ fondamentalarbp.be ♥. desert Bedeutung, Definition desert: 1. an area, often covered with sand or rocks, where there is very little rain and not many plants. and mountainous deserts - which make up the largest part of the Earth's arid regions - and dune-covered ghost towns. The Vlei, a parched saltpan with cracked.

Desert-

Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für desert im Online-Wörterbuch fondamentalarbp.be (​Deutschwörterbuch). Desert Operations - das spannende Free to play Militär-Browsergame! Deine strategischen Fähigkeiten sind gefragt: Baue deine Basis taktisch klug aus. desert Bedeutung, Definition desert: 1. an area, often covered with sand or rocks, where there is very little rain and not many plants.

In fact, the phrase employs neither of these words. It has nothing to do with arid, dry land, or with cookies and ice cream. Examples of desert in a Sentence Noun 1 Satellite images taken this year and 20 years ago show that the desert is in retreat thanks to a resurgence of trees.

Brody , New York Times , 1 Jan. She had been married for just over a year when her husband deserted her.

He was deserted by his friends and family. See more words from the same century From the Editors at Merriam-Webster. The usage advice you deserve What's the 'Desert' in 'Desert Island'?

What's the 'Desert' in 'Desert Island'? It's not a desert—it's deserted 'Affect' vs. Accessed 3 Aug.

Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for desert desert. Entry 1 of 3 : a dry land with few plants and little rainfall desert.

Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way.

Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! And who put it there, anyway?

Literally How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts. However, this would have been primarily before the evolution of angiosperms flowering plants, the group to which most present-day plants, including those of deserts, belong.

Only a few primitive plants, which may have been part of the ancient desert vegetation, occur in present-day deserts. One example is the bizarre conifer relative tumboa , or welwitschia , in the Namib Desert of southwestern Africa.

Welwitschia has only two leaves, which are leathery, straplike organs that emanate from the middle of a massive, mainly subterranean woody stem.

These leaves grow perpetually from their bases and erode progressively at their ends. This desert also harbours several other plants and animals peculiarly adapted to the arid environment, suggesting that it might have a longer continuous history of arid conditions than most other deserts.

Desert floras and faunas initially evolved from ancestors in moister habitats, an evolution that occurred independently on each continent.

However, a significant degree of commonality exists among the plant families that dominate different desert vegetations.

This is due in part to intrinsic physiologic characteristics in some widespread desert families that preadapt the plants to an arid environment; it also is a result of plant migration occurring through chance seed dispersal among desert regions.

Such migration was particularly easy between northern and southern desert regions in Africa and in the Americas during intervals of drier climate that have occurred in the past two million years.

This migration is reflected in close floristic similarities currently observed in these places. For example, the creosote bush Larrea tridentata , although now widespread and common in North American hot deserts, was probably a natural immigrant from South America as recently as the end of the last Ice Age about 11, years ago.

Migration between discrete desert regions also has been relatively easier for those plants adapted to survival in saline soils because such conditions occur not only in deserts but also in coastal habitats.

When they reach the crest, they cascade down the far side. As this wind-induced movement of sand grains takes place, the dune moves slowly across the surface of the ground.

When these are extensive, they are known as sand seas or ergs. The shape of the dune depends on the characteristics of the prevailing wind.

Barchan dunes are produced by strong winds blowing across a level surface and are crescent-shaped with the concave side away from the wind.

When there are two directions from which winds regularly blow, a series of long, linear dunes known as seif dunes may form.

These also occur parallel to a strong wind that blows in one general direction. Transverse dunes run at a right angle to the prevailing wind direction.

Star dunes are formed by variable winds, and have several ridges and slip faces radiating from a central point. Rounded mounds of sand without a slip face are the rare dome dunes, found on the upwind edges of sand seas.

A large part of the surface area of the world's deserts consists of flat, stone-covered plains dominated by wind erosion.

In "eolian deflation", the wind continually removes fine-grained material, which becomes wind-blown sand. This exposes coarser-grained material, mainly pebbles with some larger stones or cobbles , [36] [47] leaving a desert pavement , an area of land overlaid by closely packed smooth stones forming a tessellated mosaic.

Different theories exist as to how exactly the pavement is formed. It may be that after the sand and dust is blown away by the wind the stones jiggle themselves into place; alternatively, stones previously below ground may in some way work themselves to the surface.

Very little further erosion takes place after the formation of a pavement, and the ground becomes stable. Evaporation brings moisture to the surface by capillary action and calcium salts may be precipitated, binding particles together to form a desert conglomerate.

Other non-sandy deserts consist of exposed outcrops of bedrock , dry soils or aridisols , and a variety of landforms affected by flowing water , such as alluvial fans , sinks or playas , temporary or permanent lakes , and oases.

Other landforms include plains largely covered by gravels and angular boulders, from which the finer particles have been stripped by the wind.

In some places the wind has carved holes or arches, and in others, it has created mushroom-like pillars narrower at the base than the top.

Here the Colorado River has cut its way over the millennia through the high desert floor creating a canyon that is over a mile 6, feet or 1, meters deep in places, exposing strata that are over two billion years old.

One of the driest places on Earth is the Atacama Desert. The cold Humboldt Current and the anticyclone of the Pacific are essential to keep the dry climate of the Atacama.

Some weather stations in the Atacama have never received rain. Evidence suggests that the Atacama may not have had any significant rainfall from to When rain falls in deserts, as it occasionally does, it is often with great violence.

The desert surface is evidence of this with dry stream channels known as arroyos or wadis meandering across its surface.

These can experience flash floods , becoming raging torrents with surprising rapidity after a storm that may be many kilometers away.

Most deserts are in basins with no drainage to the sea but some are crossed by exotic rivers sourced in mountain ranges or other high rainfall areas beyond their borders.

The River Nile , the Colorado River and the Yellow River do this, losing much of their water through evaporation as they pass through the desert and raising groundwater levels nearby.

There may also be underground sources of water in deserts in the form of springs , aquifers , underground rivers or lakes. Where these lie close to the surface, wells can be dug and oases may form where plant and animal life can flourish.

A lake occupied this depression in ancient times and thick deposits of sandy-clay resulted. Wells are dug to extract water from the porous sandstone that lies underneath.

Lakes may form in basins where there is sufficient precipitation or meltwater from glaciers above. They are usually shallow and saline, and wind blowing over their surface can cause stress, moving the water over nearby low-lying areas.

When the lakes dry up, they leave a crust or hardpan behind. This area of deposited clay, silt or sand is known as a playa. The deserts of North America have more than one hundred playas, many of them relics of Lake Bonneville which covered parts of Utah, Nevada and Idaho during the last ice age when the climate was colder and wetter.

The smooth flat surfaces of playas have been used for attempted vehicle speed records at Black Rock Desert and Bonneville Speedway and the United States Air Force uses Rogers Dry Lake in the Mojave Desert as runways for aircraft and the space shuttle.

Plants face severe challenges in arid environments. Problems they need to solve include how to obtain enough water, how to avoid being eaten and how to reproduce.

Photosynthesis is the key to plant growth. It can only take place during the day as energy from the sun is required, but during the day, many deserts become very hot.

Opening stomata to allow in the carbon dioxide necessary for the process causes evapotranspiration , and conservation of water is a top priority for desert vegetation.

Some plants have resolved this problem by adopting crassulacean acid metabolism , allowing them to open their stomata during the night to allow CO 2 to enter, and close them during the day, [68] or by using C4 carbon fixation.

Many desert plants have reduced the size of their leaves or abandoned them altogether. Cacti are desert specialists, and in most species, the leaves have been dispensed with and the chlorophyll displaced into the trunks, the cellular structure of which has been modified to allow them to store water.

When rain falls, the water is rapidly absorbed by the shallow roots and retained to allow them to survive until the next downpour, which may be months or years away.

Saguaro grows slowly but may live for up to two hundred years. The surface of the trunk is folded like a concertina , allowing it to expand, and a large specimen can hold eight tons of water after a good downpour.

Cacti are present in both North and South America with a post-Gondwana origin. Other xerophytic plants have developed similar strategies by a process known as convergent evolution.

Some are deciduous, shedding their leaves in the driest season, and others curl their leaves up to reduce transpiration. Others store water in succulent leaves or stems or in fleshy tubers.

Desert plants maximize water uptake by having shallow roots that spread widely, or by developing long taproots that reach down to deep rock strata for ground water.

Some desert plants produce seed which lies dormant in the soil until sparked into growth by rainfall. With annuals , such plants grow with great rapidity and may flower and set seed within weeks, aiming to complete their development before the last vestige of water dries up.

For perennial plants, reproduction is more likely to be successful if the seed germinates in a shaded position, but not so close to the parent plant as to be in competition with it.

Some seed will not germinate until it has been blown about on the desert floor to scarify the seed coat. The seed of the mesquite tree, which grows in deserts in the Americas, is hard and fails to sprout even when planted carefully.

When it has passed through the gut of a pronghorn it germinates readily, and the little pile of moist dung provides an excellent start to life well away from the parent tree.

Even small fungi and microscopic plant organisms found on the soil surface so-called cryptobiotic soil can be a vital link in preventing erosion and providing support for other living organisms.

Cold deserts often have high concentrations of salt in the soil. Grasses and low shrubs are the dominant vegetation here and the ground may be covered with lichens.

Most shrubs have spiny leaves and shed them in the coldest part of the year. Animals adapted to live in deserts are called xerocoles. There is no evidence that body temperature of mammals and birds is adaptive to the different climates, either of great heat or cold.

In fact, with a very few exceptions, their basal metabolic rate is determined by body size, irrespective of the climate in which they live.

One well-studied example is the specializations of mammalian kidneys shown by desert-inhabiting species.

Deserts present a very challenging environment for animals. Not only do they require food and water but they also need to keep their body temperature at a tolerable level.

In many ways, birds are the ablest to do this of the higher animals. They can move to areas of greater food availability as the desert blooms after local rainfall and can fly to faraway waterholes.

In hot deserts, gliding birds can remove themselves from the over-heated desert floor by using thermals to soar in the cooler air at great heights.

In order to conserve energy, other desert birds run rather than fly. The cream-colored courser flits gracefully across the ground on its long legs, stopping periodically to snatch up insects.

Like other desert birds, it is well- camouflaged by its coloring and can merge into the landscape when stationary.

The sandgrouse is an expert at this and nests on the open desert floor dozens of kilometers miles away from the waterhole it needs to visit daily.

Some small diurnal birds are found in very restricted localities where their plumage matches the color of the underlying surface. The desert lark takes frequent dust baths which ensures that it matches its environment.

Water and carbon dioxide are metabolic end products of oxidation of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Species such as the addax antelope , [84] dik-dik , Grant's gazelle and oryx are so efficient at doing this that they apparently never need to drink.

Kangaroos keep cool by increasing their respiration rate, panting, sweating and moistening the skin of their forelegs with saliva.

The arctic weasel has a metabolic rate that is two or three times as high as would be expected for an animal of its size.

Birds have avoided the problem of losing heat through their feet by not attempting to maintain them at the same temperature as the rest of their bodies, a form of adaptive insulation.

Being ectotherms , reptiles are unable to live in cold deserts but are well-suited to hot ones. They have few adaptations to desert life and are unable to cool themselves by sweating so they shelter during the heat of the day.

In the first part of the night, as the ground radiates the heat absorbed during the day, they emerge and search for prey. Lizards and snakes are the most numerous in arid regions and certain snakes have developed a novel method of locomotion that enables them to move sidewards and navigate high sand-dunes.

These include the horned viper of Africa and the sidewinder of North America, evolutionarily distinct but with similar behavioural patterns because of convergent evolution.

Many desert reptiles are ambush predators and often bury themselves in the sand, waiting for prey to come within range.

Amphibians might seem unlikely desert-dwellers, because of their need to keep their skins moist and their dependence on water for reproductive purposes.

In fact, the few species that are found in this habitat have made some remarkable adaptations. Most of them are fossorial, spending the hot dry months aestivating in deep burrows.

While there they shed their skins a number of times and retain the remnants around them as a waterproof cocoon to retain moisture. In the Sonoran Desert , Couch's spadefoot toad spends most of the year dormant in its burrow.

Heavy rain is the trigger for emergence and the first male to find a suitable pool calls to attract others. Eggs are laid and the tadpoles grow rapidly as they must reach metamorphosis before the water evaporates.

As the desert dries out, the adult toads rebury themselves. The juveniles stay on the surface for a while, feeding and growing, but soon dig themselves burrows.

Few make it to adulthood. Invertebrates, particularly arthropods , have successfully made their homes in the desert.

Flies , beetles , ants , termites , locusts , millipedes , scorpions and spiders [94] have hard cuticles which are impervious to water and many of them lay their eggs underground and their young develop away from the temperature extremes at the surface.

The desert shrimp does this, appearing "miraculously" in new-formed puddles as the dormant eggs hatch. Humans have long made use of deserts as places to live, [99] and more recently have started to exploit them for minerals [] and energy capture.

People have been living in deserts for millennia. Many, such as the Bushmen in the Kalahari , the Aborigines in Australia and various tribes of North American Indians , were originally hunter-gatherers.

They developed skills in the manufacture and use of weapons, animal tracking, finding water, foraging for edible plants and using the things they found in their natural environment to supply their everyday needs.

Their self-sufficient skills and knowledge were passed down through the generations by word of mouth. They travelled over large areas with their herds, moving to new pastures as seasonal and erratic rainfall encouraged new plant growth.

They took with them their tents made of cloth or skins draped over poles and their diet included milk, blood and sometimes meat. The desert nomads were also traders.

The Sahara is a very large expanse of land stretching from the Atlantic rim to Egypt. Trade routes were developed linking the Sahel in the south with the fertile Mediterranean region to the north and large numbers of camels were used to carry valuable goods across the desert interior.

The Tuareg were traders and the goods transported traditionally included slaves , ivory and gold going northwards and salt going southwards.

Berbers with knowledge of the region were employed to guide the caravans between the various oases and wells. Round the rims of deserts, where more precipitation occurred and conditions were more suitable, some groups took to cultivating crops.

This may have happened when drought caused the death of herd animals, forcing herdsmen to turn to cultivation.

With few inputs, they were at the mercy of the weather and may have lived at bare subsistence level. The land they cultivated reduced the area available to nomadic herders, causing disputes over land.

The semi-arid fringes of the desert have fragile soils which are at risk of erosion when exposed, as happened in the American Dust Bowl in the s.

The grasses that held the soil in place were ploughed under, and a series of dry years caused crop failures, while enormous dust storms blew the topsoil away.

Half a million Americans were forced to leave their land in this catastrophe. Similar damage is being done today to the semi-arid areas that rim deserts and about twelve million hectares of land are being turned to desert each year.

Vegetation plays a major role in determining the composition of the soil. In many environments, the rate of erosion and run off increases dramatically with reduced vegetation cover.

Deserts contain substantial mineral resources, sometimes over their entire surface, giving them their characteristic colors.

For example, the red of many sand deserts comes from laterite minerals. Leaching by ground water can extract ore minerals and redeposit them, according to the water table , in concentrated form.

Evaporation can concentrate minerals as a variety of evaporite deposits, including gypsum , sodium nitrate , sodium chloride and borates.

Many other metals, salts and commercially valuable types of rock such as pumice are extracted from deserts around the world. Oil and gas form on the bottom of shallow seas when micro-organisms decompose under anoxic conditions and later become covered with sediment.

Many deserts were at one time the sites of shallow seas and others have had underlying hydrocarbon deposits transported to them by the movement of tectonic plates.

Traditional desert farming systems have long been established in North Africa, irrigation being the key to success in an area where water stress is a limiting factor to growth.

Techniques that can be used include drip irrigation , the use of organic residues or animal manures as fertilisers and other traditional agricultural management practices.

Once fertility has been built up, further crop production preserves the soil from destruction by wind and other forms of erosion. A study of these microbes found that desert farming hampers desertification by establishing islands of fertility allowing farmers to achieve increased yields despite the adverse environmental conditions.

They used terracing techniques and grew gardens beside seeps, in moist areas at the foot of dunes, near streams providing flood irrigation and in areas irrigated by extensive specially built canals.

They grew maize, beans, squash and peppers. The soil is deep and fertile, being part of the river's flood plains, and what would otherwise have been desert has been transformed into one of the most productive farming regions in California.

Other water from the river is piped to urban communities but all this has been at the expense of the river, which below the extraction sites no longer has any above-ground flow during most of the year.

Another problem of growing crops in this way is the build-up of salinity in the soil caused by the evaporation of river water.

This prospect has proved false as it disregarded the environmental damage caused elsewhere by the diversion of water for desert project irrigation.

Deserts are increasingly seen as sources for solar energy , partly due to low amounts of cloud cover.

The potential for generating solar energy from the Sahara Desert is huge, the highest found on the globe.

European interest in the Sahara Desert stems from its two aspects: the almost continual daytime sunshine and plenty of unused land.

The Sahara receives more sunshine per acre than any part of Europe. The Sahara Desert also has the empty space totalling hundreds of square miles required to house fields of mirrors for solar plants.

The Negev Desert , Israel , and the surrounding area, including the Arava Valley , receive plenty of sunshine and are generally not arable. This has resulted in the construction of many solar plants.

The Arabs were probably the first organized force to conduct successful battles in the desert.

Desert- Kostenloses Online Strategiespiel

Alle Rechte Softpedia VertrauenswГјrdig. Sagen Sie uns Ihre Meinung! Mit der Hälfte des Zuckers und Likör bestreuen. Folgen Sie uns. Lebkuchen zerbröseln und in Grand Marnier und Kirschsaft einweichen. In such cases, desert is a necessar y but not sufficient justification for the imposition of the death penalty. Désert oder Desert (von frz. désert für Wüste) ist der Nachname oder ein Namensteil folgender Personen: Alex Désert (* ), US-amerikanischer. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für desert im Online-Wörterbuch fondamentalarbp.be (​Deutschwörterbuch). Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für to desert im Online-Wörterbuch fondamentalarbp.be (​Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung für 'desert' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzung im Kontext von „desert“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: desert island, desert storm, in the middle of the desert, sahara desert, atacama.

Ground water may be drawn to the surface by evaporation and the formation of salt crystals may dislodge rock particles as sand or disintegrate rocks by exfoliation.

Shallow caves are sometimes formed at the base of cliffs by this means. As the desert mountains decay, large areas of shattered rock and rubble occur.

The process continues and the end products are either dust or sand. Dust is formed from solidified clay or volcanic deposits whereas sand results from the fragmentation of harder granites , limestone and sandstone.

As the mountains are eroded, more and more sand is created. At high wind speeds, sand grains are picked up off the surface and blown along, a process known as saltation.

The whirling airborne grains act as a sand blasting mechanism which grinds away solid objects in its path as the kinetic energy of the wind is transferred to the ground.

Sand and dust storms are natural events that occur in arid regions where the land is not protected by a covering of vegetation.

Dust storms usually start in desert margins rather than the deserts themselves where the finer materials have already been blown away.

As a steady wind begins to blow, fine particles lying on the exposed ground begin to vibrate. At greater wind speeds, some particles are lifted into the air stream.

When they land, they strike other particles which may be jerked into the air in their turn, starting a chain reaction. Once ejected, these particles move in one of three possible ways, depending on their size, shape and density; suspension , saltation or creep.

Suspension is only possible for particles less than 0. The sunlight can be obliterated and it may become as dark as night at ground level.

The mean particle size was 1. Sandstorms occur with much less frequency than dust storms. They are often preceded by severe dust storms and occur when the wind velocity increases to a point where it can lift heavier particles.

These grains of sand, up to about 0. Their weight prevents them from being airborne for long and most only travel a distance of a few meters yards.

They are transported by creep, being rolled along the desert floor or performing short jumps. During a sandstorm, the wind-blown sand particles become electrically charged.

They are also unpleasant for humans and can cause headaches and nausea. Deserts take up about one third of the Earth's land surface. Eolian processes are major factors in shaping desert landscapes.

Polar deserts also seen as "cold deserts" have similar features, except the main form of precipitation is snow rather than rain. Some of the barren rock is to be found in the so-called Dry Valleys of Antarctica that almost never get snow, which can have ice-encrusted saline lakes that suggest evaporation far greater than the rare snowfall due to the strong katabatic winds that even evaporate ice.

Deserts, both hot and cold, play a part in moderating the Earth's temperature. This is because they reflect more of the incoming light and their albedo is higher than that of forests or the sea.

Many people think of deserts as consisting of extensive areas of billowing sand dunes because that is the way they are often depicted on TV and in films, [45] but deserts do not always look like this.

A sand sheet is a near-level, firm expanse of partially consolidated particles in a layer that varies from a few centimeters to a few meters thick.

The structure of the sheet consists of thin horizontal layers of coarse silt and very fine to medium grain sand, separated by layers of coarse sand and pea-gravel which are a single grain thick.

These larger particles anchor the other particles in place and may also be packed together on the surface so as to form a miniature desert pavement.

They form perpendicular to the wind direction and gradually move across the surface as the wind continues to blow.

The distance between their crests corresponds to the average length of jumps made by particles during saltation. The ripples are ephemeral and a change in wind direction causes them to reorganise.

Sand dunes are accumulations of windblown sand piled up in mounds or ridges. They form downwind of copious sources of dry, loose sand and occur when topographic and climatic conditions cause airborne particles to settle.

As the wind blows, saltation and creep take place on the windward side of the dune and individual grains of sand move uphill.

When they reach the crest, they cascade down the far side. As this wind-induced movement of sand grains takes place, the dune moves slowly across the surface of the ground.

When these are extensive, they are known as sand seas or ergs. The shape of the dune depends on the characteristics of the prevailing wind.

Barchan dunes are produced by strong winds blowing across a level surface and are crescent-shaped with the concave side away from the wind.

When there are two directions from which winds regularly blow, a series of long, linear dunes known as seif dunes may form.

These also occur parallel to a strong wind that blows in one general direction. Transverse dunes run at a right angle to the prevailing wind direction.

Star dunes are formed by variable winds, and have several ridges and slip faces radiating from a central point. Rounded mounds of sand without a slip face are the rare dome dunes, found on the upwind edges of sand seas.

A large part of the surface area of the world's deserts consists of flat, stone-covered plains dominated by wind erosion. In "eolian deflation", the wind continually removes fine-grained material, which becomes wind-blown sand.

This exposes coarser-grained material, mainly pebbles with some larger stones or cobbles , [36] [47] leaving a desert pavement , an area of land overlaid by closely packed smooth stones forming a tessellated mosaic.

Different theories exist as to how exactly the pavement is formed. It may be that after the sand and dust is blown away by the wind the stones jiggle themselves into place; alternatively, stones previously below ground may in some way work themselves to the surface.

Very little further erosion takes place after the formation of a pavement, and the ground becomes stable. Evaporation brings moisture to the surface by capillary action and calcium salts may be precipitated, binding particles together to form a desert conglomerate.

Other non-sandy deserts consist of exposed outcrops of bedrock , dry soils or aridisols , and a variety of landforms affected by flowing water , such as alluvial fans , sinks or playas , temporary or permanent lakes , and oases.

Other landforms include plains largely covered by gravels and angular boulders, from which the finer particles have been stripped by the wind.

In some places the wind has carved holes or arches, and in others, it has created mushroom-like pillars narrower at the base than the top.

Here the Colorado River has cut its way over the millennia through the high desert floor creating a canyon that is over a mile 6, feet or 1, meters deep in places, exposing strata that are over two billion years old.

One of the driest places on Earth is the Atacama Desert. The cold Humboldt Current and the anticyclone of the Pacific are essential to keep the dry climate of the Atacama.

Some weather stations in the Atacama have never received rain. Evidence suggests that the Atacama may not have had any significant rainfall from to When rain falls in deserts, as it occasionally does, it is often with great violence.

The desert surface is evidence of this with dry stream channels known as arroyos or wadis meandering across its surface.

These can experience flash floods , becoming raging torrents with surprising rapidity after a storm that may be many kilometers away.

Most deserts are in basins with no drainage to the sea but some are crossed by exotic rivers sourced in mountain ranges or other high rainfall areas beyond their borders.

The River Nile , the Colorado River and the Yellow River do this, losing much of their water through evaporation as they pass through the desert and raising groundwater levels nearby.

There may also be underground sources of water in deserts in the form of springs , aquifers , underground rivers or lakes.

Where these lie close to the surface, wells can be dug and oases may form where plant and animal life can flourish.

A lake occupied this depression in ancient times and thick deposits of sandy-clay resulted. Wells are dug to extract water from the porous sandstone that lies underneath.

Lakes may form in basins where there is sufficient precipitation or meltwater from glaciers above. They are usually shallow and saline, and wind blowing over their surface can cause stress, moving the water over nearby low-lying areas.

When the lakes dry up, they leave a crust or hardpan behind. This area of deposited clay, silt or sand is known as a playa. The deserts of North America have more than one hundred playas, many of them relics of Lake Bonneville which covered parts of Utah, Nevada and Idaho during the last ice age when the climate was colder and wetter.

The smooth flat surfaces of playas have been used for attempted vehicle speed records at Black Rock Desert and Bonneville Speedway and the United States Air Force uses Rogers Dry Lake in the Mojave Desert as runways for aircraft and the space shuttle.

Plants face severe challenges in arid environments. Problems they need to solve include how to obtain enough water, how to avoid being eaten and how to reproduce.

Photosynthesis is the key to plant growth. It can only take place during the day as energy from the sun is required, but during the day, many deserts become very hot.

Opening stomata to allow in the carbon dioxide necessary for the process causes evapotranspiration , and conservation of water is a top priority for desert vegetation.

Some plants have resolved this problem by adopting crassulacean acid metabolism , allowing them to open their stomata during the night to allow CO 2 to enter, and close them during the day, [68] or by using C4 carbon fixation.

Many desert plants have reduced the size of their leaves or abandoned them altogether. Cacti are desert specialists, and in most species, the leaves have been dispensed with and the chlorophyll displaced into the trunks, the cellular structure of which has been modified to allow them to store water.

When rain falls, the water is rapidly absorbed by the shallow roots and retained to allow them to survive until the next downpour, which may be months or years away.

Saguaro grows slowly but may live for up to two hundred years. The surface of the trunk is folded like a concertina , allowing it to expand, and a large specimen can hold eight tons of water after a good downpour.

Cacti are present in both North and South America with a post-Gondwana origin. Other xerophytic plants have developed similar strategies by a process known as convergent evolution.

Some are deciduous, shedding their leaves in the driest season, and others curl their leaves up to reduce transpiration. Others store water in succulent leaves or stems or in fleshy tubers.

Desert plants maximize water uptake by having shallow roots that spread widely, or by developing long taproots that reach down to deep rock strata for ground water.

Some desert plants produce seed which lies dormant in the soil until sparked into growth by rainfall.

With annuals , such plants grow with great rapidity and may flower and set seed within weeks, aiming to complete their development before the last vestige of water dries up.

For perennial plants, reproduction is more likely to be successful if the seed germinates in a shaded position, but not so close to the parent plant as to be in competition with it.

Some seed will not germinate until it has been blown about on the desert floor to scarify the seed coat. The seed of the mesquite tree, which grows in deserts in the Americas, is hard and fails to sprout even when planted carefully.

When it has passed through the gut of a pronghorn it germinates readily, and the little pile of moist dung provides an excellent start to life well away from the parent tree.

Even small fungi and microscopic plant organisms found on the soil surface so-called cryptobiotic soil can be a vital link in preventing erosion and providing support for other living organisms.

Cold deserts often have high concentrations of salt in the soil. Grasses and low shrubs are the dominant vegetation here and the ground may be covered with lichens.

Most shrubs have spiny leaves and shed them in the coldest part of the year. Animals adapted to live in deserts are called xerocoles.

There is no evidence that body temperature of mammals and birds is adaptive to the different climates, either of great heat or cold.

In fact, with a very few exceptions, their basal metabolic rate is determined by body size, irrespective of the climate in which they live.

One well-studied example is the specializations of mammalian kidneys shown by desert-inhabiting species. Deserts present a very challenging environment for animals.

Not only do they require food and water but they also need to keep their body temperature at a tolerable level. In many ways, birds are the ablest to do this of the higher animals.

They can move to areas of greater food availability as the desert blooms after local rainfall and can fly to faraway waterholes. In hot deserts, gliding birds can remove themselves from the over-heated desert floor by using thermals to soar in the cooler air at great heights.

In order to conserve energy, other desert birds run rather than fly. The cream-colored courser flits gracefully across the ground on its long legs, stopping periodically to snatch up insects.

Like other desert birds, it is well- camouflaged by its coloring and can merge into the landscape when stationary.

The sandgrouse is an expert at this and nests on the open desert floor dozens of kilometers miles away from the waterhole it needs to visit daily.

Some small diurnal birds are found in very restricted localities where their plumage matches the color of the underlying surface.

The desert lark takes frequent dust baths which ensures that it matches its environment. Water and carbon dioxide are metabolic end products of oxidation of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.

Species such as the addax antelope , [84] dik-dik , Grant's gazelle and oryx are so efficient at doing this that they apparently never need to drink.

Kangaroos keep cool by increasing their respiration rate, panting, sweating and moistening the skin of their forelegs with saliva.

The arctic weasel has a metabolic rate that is two or three times as high as would be expected for an animal of its size.

Birds have avoided the problem of losing heat through their feet by not attempting to maintain them at the same temperature as the rest of their bodies, a form of adaptive insulation.

Being ectotherms , reptiles are unable to live in cold deserts but are well-suited to hot ones. They have few adaptations to desert life and are unable to cool themselves by sweating so they shelter during the heat of the day.

In the first part of the night, as the ground radiates the heat absorbed during the day, they emerge and search for prey.

Lizards and snakes are the most numerous in arid regions and certain snakes have developed a novel method of locomotion that enables them to move sidewards and navigate high sand-dunes.

These include the horned viper of Africa and the sidewinder of North America, evolutionarily distinct but with similar behavioural patterns because of convergent evolution.

Many desert reptiles are ambush predators and often bury themselves in the sand, waiting for prey to come within range. Amphibians might seem unlikely desert-dwellers, because of their need to keep their skins moist and their dependence on water for reproductive purposes.

In fact, the few species that are found in this habitat have made some remarkable adaptations. Most of them are fossorial, spending the hot dry months aestivating in deep burrows.

While there they shed their skins a number of times and retain the remnants around them as a waterproof cocoon to retain moisture. In the Sonoran Desert , Couch's spadefoot toad spends most of the year dormant in its burrow.

Heavy rain is the trigger for emergence and the first male to find a suitable pool calls to attract others.

Eggs are laid and the tadpoles grow rapidly as they must reach metamorphosis before the water evaporates. As the desert dries out, the adult toads rebury themselves.

The juveniles stay on the surface for a while, feeding and growing, but soon dig themselves burrows.

Few make it to adulthood. Invertebrates, particularly arthropods , have successfully made their homes in the desert. Flies , beetles , ants , termites , locusts , millipedes , scorpions and spiders [94] have hard cuticles which are impervious to water and many of them lay their eggs underground and their young develop away from the temperature extremes at the surface.

The desert shrimp does this, appearing "miraculously" in new-formed puddles as the dormant eggs hatch. Humans have long made use of deserts as places to live, [99] and more recently have started to exploit them for minerals [] and energy capture.

People have been living in deserts for millennia. Many, such as the Bushmen in the Kalahari , the Aborigines in Australia and various tribes of North American Indians , were originally hunter-gatherers.

They developed skills in the manufacture and use of weapons, animal tracking, finding water, foraging for edible plants and using the things they found in their natural environment to supply their everyday needs.

Their self-sufficient skills and knowledge were passed down through the generations by word of mouth. They travelled over large areas with their herds, moving to new pastures as seasonal and erratic rainfall encouraged new plant growth.

They took with them their tents made of cloth or skins draped over poles and their diet included milk, blood and sometimes meat.

Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? Can you spell these 15 tricky spelling words? Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words?

Listen to the words and spell through all three levels. Login or Register. Save Word. Log In. More Example Sentences Learn More about desert.

Keep scrolling for more. Synonyms for desert Synonyms: Noun 1 barren , desolation , heath , no-man's-land , waste , wasteland Synonyms: Verb defect from , rat on Synonyms: Noun 2 castigation , chastisement , comeuppance , correction , discipline , nemesis , penalty , punishment , wrath Visit the Thesaurus for More.

Choose the Right Synonym for desert Verb abandon , desert , forsake mean to leave without intending to return. Where does the phrase just deserts come from?

First Known Use of desert Noun 1 13th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1 Adjective 13th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1 Verb , in the meaning defined at transitive sense 1 Noun 2 13th century, in the meaning defined at sense 2.

Learn More about desert. Time Traveler for desert The first known use of desert was in the 13th century See more words from the same century. From the Editors at Merriam-Webster.

The usage advice you deserve. It's not a desert—it's deserted. Desert environments are so dry that they support only extremely sparse vegetation; trees are usually absent and, under normal climatic conditions, shrubs or herbaceous plants provide only very incomplete ground cover.

Extreme aridity renders some deserts virtually devoid of plants; however, this barrenness is believed to be due in part to the effects of human disturbance, such as heavy grazing of cattle , on an already stressed environment.

According to some definitions, any environment that is almost completely free of plants is considered desert, including regions too cold to support vegetation—i.

The desert environments of the present are, in geologic terms, relatively recent in origin. They represent the most extreme result of the progressive cooling and consequent aridification of global climates during the Cenozoic Era It has been suggested that many typical modern desert plant families, particularly those with an Asian centre of diversity such as the chenopod and tamarisk families, first appeared in the Miocene 23 to 5.

Deserts also probably existed much earlier, during former periods of global arid climate in the lee of mountain ranges that sheltered them from rain or in the centre of extensive continental regions.

However, this would have been primarily before the evolution of angiosperms flowering plants, the group to which most present-day plants, including those of deserts, belong.

Only a few primitive plants, which may have been part of the ancient desert vegetation, occur in present-day deserts. One example is the bizarre conifer relative tumboa , or welwitschia , in the Namib Desert of southwestern Africa.

Welwitschia has only two leaves, which are leathery, straplike organs that emanate from the middle of a massive, mainly subterranean woody stem.

These leaves grow perpetually from their bases and erode progressively at their ends. This desert also harbours several other plants and animals peculiarly adapted to the arid environment, suggesting that it might have a longer continuous history of arid conditions than most other deserts.

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Desert- - "desert" Deutsch Übersetzung

Du wirst deine Seite und Strategie wählen müssen: Bündnis oder Spaltung. Local people deserted the city as hordes of tourists arrived. Die Giottokugeln mit dem Kakao und dem Zucker in einen Mixer geben und fein mahlen. Desert- They are meant to reclaim place from the Beste Spielothek in Barbis finden of non-place and, in the process, serve as monuments against forgetting. Die Crememasse und die Beste Spielothek in Pontnig finden geschichtet in Dessertgläser geben. Wüste kriecht. The desert experience is unique, intimate, unforgettable. Er ist mir quer durch die Wüste gefolgt Neue Wörter revenge spending. Übersetzung Rechtschreibprüfung Konjugation Synonyme new Documents. Wir waren bereit für die Begegnung Www.Sky .De der Wüste. Die Www.Sky .De mit Sahnesteif steif schlagen. At nightadult scorpions prowl the desert for insects. Finally, it is time for sausage - and to finish off, desert for the whole family. Verdienst lichkeit feminine Femininum f neuter Neutrum n desert worth. Mehr lesen. Die Sahne steif schlagen. Gta Online Casino Dlc Tee oder Kakao. Wert masculine Maskulinum m desert worth. Kurz vor dem Servieren die rote Grütze darau. Die Sahne Desert- etwas Zucker steif schlagen. Holen Sie sich unsere kostenlosen Widgets. A Genesis Mining Erfahrung which Timmy brought with him too. We had to cross a large area of aridfeatureless desert. Deserts take up about one third of the Earth's GlГјckspielsucht surface. For the act of abandoning or Www.Sky .De support, see Desertion. Even small fungi and Spielothek Г¶ffnungszeiten Weihnachten plant organisms found Beste Spielothek in Gonna finden the soil surface so-called cryptobiotic soil can be a vital link in preventing erosion and providing support for other living organisms. Although rain seldom occurs in deserts, there are occasional downpours that can result in flash floods. Can you spell these 15 Vip Teppich spelling words? Trade routes were developed linking the Sahel in the south with the fertile Mediterranean region to the north and large numbers of JubilГ¤ums Sonderauslosung were used to carry valuable goods across the desert interior. The desert surface is evidence of this with dry stream channels known as arroyos or wadis meandering across Online Casino Deutsch surface. Polar deserts such as McMurdo Dry Valleys remain ice-free because of the dry Desert- winds that flow downhill from the surrounding mountains. Harper Collins. Techniques that can be used include drip irrigationthe use of organic residues or animal manures as fertilisers and other traditional agricultural management practices. Desert-

Desert- Käse-Sahne-Dessert

They are meant to reclaim Online Shop Mit Paysafecard from the Www.Sky .De of non-place and, in the process, serve as monuments against forgetting. But such organized resistance was rare, and once called up, few soldiers dodged conscription and even fewer deserted. The second objection accepts the legitimacy of assessing desert by interpersonal comparisons, but says that the pragmatic Frolicking Deutsch is inaccurate even on its own terms. Langenscheidt Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch desert. Die Sahne mit dem Zucker und Vanillezucker steif schlagen. Wüste nennt ist sandbedeckt Soldiers who deserted and were caught were shot. Vielen Dank für Ihr Feedback!

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